Causes of Menstrual Problems

The exact cause of PMS has not been fully understood. During your menstrual cycle, levels of hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone rise and fall. Hormone fluctuations are thought to be the biggest contributing factor to many of the symptoms of PMS.

The varying hormone levels may affect some women more than others. Chemical changes in the brain may also be involved. Stress and emotional problems, such as depression, do not seem to cause PMS, but they may make it worse. Some other possible causes include:

• Low levels of vitamins and minerals.
• Eating a lot of salty foods, which may cause you to retain (keep) fluid.
• Drinking alcohol and caffeine, which may alter your mood and energy level.

Causes of Menstrual Cramps

Uterine fibroids

The noncancerous growths in the wall of the uterus may be the reason of pain.

Adenomyosis

The tissue that lines your uterus begins to grow into the muscular walls of the uterus.

Endometriosis

In this painful condition, the tissue that lines your uterus becomes implanted outside your uterus, most commonly on your fallopian tubes, ovaries or the tissue lining your pelvis.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

This infection of the female reproductive organs is usually caused by sexually transmitted bacteria.

Cervical stenosis

In some women, the opening of the cervix may be so small that it impedes menstrual flow, causing a painful increase of pressure within the uterus.

Sometimes, in cases such as with secondary dysmenorrhea, painful menstrual periods can be the result of an underlying medical condition, such as, fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease or abnormal tissue growth outside of the uterus (endometriosis).